Thursday, January 17, 2013

IMF's comments on the Indian Regulatory System

The IMF has recently released the India: Financial System Stability Update. While commending on the fact that the system has a tightly controlled regulatory and supervisory regime and is reasonably resilient with no likelihood of near time stress recommends certain actions, some of which merit some thought - while others are merely incremental in nature.

a) That the regime for large exposures and connected lending needs tightening in line with good international practice. The report points to the fact that the maximum level permissible at a group level including lending for infrastructure is high at 50% of bank's capital and that it needs to be reduced to 10-25% in line with international practises. While this can be a goal post over a long time period, reducing the limit steeply will reduce availability of finance to some sectors. The solution to this could be development of alternate markets for financing which will temper , if not reduce significantly , the requirement of bank finance.

b) Reducing SLR holding limits : While appreciating the fact that CRR and SLR requirements help ensure liquidity availability during crises, IMF recommends reduction in SLR holdings in Goverment Securities. The recommendation, to my mind, comes from IMF's observation of the unsavory experience with the European banks which have held large investments in Government Bonds. This recommendation fails to take into cognizance the fact in general the G Sec investment holdings in most banks is significantly higher than the mandated requirement, which in any case is being lowered in a slow manner. This also fails to take into consideration that what is held by Indian Banks is national debt ( not international debt as in the case of most European banks)and the Debt to GDP ratio of India is better than its European counterparts. Any risk of sovereign default is hence far fetched. There is also no reason to believe that reduction in SLR norms will lead to improvement in the Corporate bond market (which acceptably has to develop in the country), as what matters is the levels of government borrowings.

c) RBI nominees on PSB Boards may lead to conflict of interest: While the recommendation in theory is probably correct, the fact is that the presence of a RBI nominee helps the regulator to get information on a real time basis and thus help in supervision. It also helps act as a deterrent , preventing activities that may be inimical to the bank and the system at large. Considering the pros and cons, RBI would do well to retain this system or retain the right to use this option.

d)Insolvency framework businesses and more particularly for proprietorship firms - which are the majority businesses in the country. The amendments to the Company's Act, which provide for OPC (One Person Company) will largely address this issue.

e) International and domestic supervisory information sharing : This is being addressed by RBI considering supervisory colleges for particularly large banking organizations. RBI has already set up supervisory colleges for SBI and ICICI Bank which have significant international presence.

The report indicates that the Indian regulatory system is clearly in good shape and while being structured to suit Indian needs meets international requirements in most cases - and what will work is independent and tight regulation. 'Gaps' (if one may say so) which are there are either by design or are already being worked on. The recent crisis has exposed the weaknesses of the neo-liberal light regulatory framework that was championed by developed nations and the Bretton Wood Twins. And as they say, it is only when the tide goes down, that we know who has been swimming naked. IMF's commendation is this context is hence an interesting development.

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